Aug. 11, 1998: The Jonsboro, Ark., school shooters are convicted of 5 counts of murder
At age 14, Mitchell Johnson pleaded guilty to the March 24, 1998, shooting at his middle school that killed four classmates and one teacher and wounded 10 others. The judge also found Andrew Golden, then age 12, guilty in the shootings despite his plea of temporary insanity.
Johnson and Golden were released from jail at age 21. At the time of the verdict, Arkansas law released juveniles from juvenile jail at age 18, but the state changed the law after the verdict to raise the age of release to older than 21.
Aug. 10, 1988: President Reagan signs the Civil Liberties Act of 1988
On Aug. 10, 1988, the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 became a federal law, allowing reparations to be paid to Japanese-Americans who had been interned or relocated by the U.S. government during World War II. The law, which was restricted to American citizens or legal permanent residents of Japanese ethnicity, granted each surviving internee about $20,000 in compensation, with payments beginning in 1990. The legislation stated that government actions were based on "race prejudice, war hysteria and a failure of political leadership" as opposed to genuine legitimacy.
Aug. 9, 1997: A Florida court compensates a long-time smoker
On Aug. 9, 1997, a Florida court ruled against Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. and awarded $750,000 to a man who smoked for 44 years and contracted lung cancer. The world's largest cigarette maker, Philip Morris, was hit with a $12 billion loss of the market value of its stocks in one day after the verdict, even though the company was not a defendant in the case.
Aug. 8, 1945: President Truman signs the U.N. Charter
By signing the U.N. Charter on Aug. 8, 1945, the U.S. became the first nation to complete the ratification process and become an official member of the U.N. Although both President Truman and Secretary of State James F. Byrnes signed the treaty in August 1945, the charter did not become effective until China, France, Great Britain, Russia and other creators of the document completed ratification. The U.N. was viewed as a means to resolving international disputes and maintaining world peace.
Aug. 7, 1964: The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution expands the U.S. military role in Southeast Asia
When Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on Aug. 7, 1964, President Lyndon Johnson gained the power to fight "communist aggression" in Southeast Asia. In 1964, communist North Vietnam controlled parts of South Vietnam, an ally of the U.S. Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy previously ordered U.S. military training for South Vietnam to no avail. Johnson decided military action was necessary and asked Congress to pass the resolution, which gave him the authority to "take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression." The act's name stemmed from the Aug. 2 attack of a U.S. destroyer on the Gulf of Tonkin by North Vietnam.