June 5, 1939: The Supreme Court rules that the First Amendment protects a worker’s right to organize
The Supreme Court ruled June 5, 1939, in the case of Hague v. Committee for Industrial Organization, that freedom of association and expression cannot be denied to members of a labor union seeking to advance their economic interests in public places. The case involved an ordinance issued in 1937 by New Jersey Mayor Frank Hague that prevented labor meetings to be held in public locations and that attempted to halt the distribution of literature pertaining to the Committee for Industrial Organization. The ruling against Hague provided that the First Amendment protections of free speech, petition and assembly are applicable to the states through the due-process clause of the 14th Amendment.
June 4, 1986: A former naval analyst pleads guilty to espionage after selling military intelligence to Israel
Jonathan Pollard, a former naval civilian intelligence analyst, pleaded guilty June 4, 1986, to one count of conspiracy to deliver national defense information to a foreign government. He was accused of obtaining and copying a manual detailing America's global electronic surveillance network and providing Israel with names of American agents in the Soviet Union. Before his sentencing, Pollard and his wife gave television interviews in which they defended their actions, attempting to rally support from Jewish Americans. These interviews were a violation of Pollard’s plea agreement. He was sentenced to life in prison for one count of espionage.
June 3, 1940: The Supreme Court rules that public schools may compel a flag salute
The Supreme Court ruled June 3, 1940, in the case of Minersville School District v. Gobitis that public schools in Minersville, Penn., may legally require students to participate in a flag salute. The case arose after a school expelled a 12-year-old student and her younger brother for refusing to participate in the daily Pledge of Allegiance. The court overruled objections from Jehovah’s Witnesses, who believed that a mandatory flag salute was an infringement on their faith. The Court reversed the ruling three years later after the decision was made that the government could not force students to participate in rituals that may violate their religious beliefs.
June 2, 1924: Congress grants citizenship to all Native Americans born in the country
Congress approved the Indian Citizenship Act on June 2, 1924, granting full citizenship to Native Americans. The act was the result of a desire by many U.S. leaders to see Native Americans assimilated into the American mainstream. By the 1920s, many Native Americans had obtained citizenship through military service, marriage or treaties. However, those who had not become citizens were denied naturalization.
June 1, 2000: The Patent Law Treaty is completed in Geneva
Fifty-three states and the European Patent Organization signed the Patent Law Treaty on June 1, 2000. The multilateral treaty was designed to coordinate formal procedures such as the requirements to obtain a filing date for a patent application.