Jan. 13, 1942 – Japanese American Internment Begins
On Jan. 13, 1942 the United States began the Japanese American Internment, a plan to forcibly remove roughly 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans from the west coast during World War II. Out of the 120,000 removed, only 10,000 were successful in relocating to other parts of the country, while the remaining 110,000 were sent to what were called ''War Relocation Centers.''
President Franklin D. Roosevelt had established the program through Executive Order 9066, which allowed for the designation of military exclusion zones, thus excluding all people of Japanese ancestry from California, Washington and Oregon. The Supreme Court upheld the Japanese American Internment program in 1944, declaring that in the event of ''pressing public necessity,'' the exclusion was permissible.
Jan. 12, 1942 – Franklin D. Roosevelt Establishes the National War Labor Board
On Jan. 12, 1942 President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the National War Labor Board, which had previously been abolished in 1919. The organization acted as an arbitrator in labor management dispute cases, preventing any work stoppages that could hinder the war effort. The Board also applied wage control to national industries such as railways, automobiles and airlines. The National War Labor Board ended its operations in 1946, passing labor dispute responsibility to the National Labor Relations Board.
Jan. 11, 1957 – Jack Gilbert Graham is executed for the murder of 44 people.
On Jan. 11, 1957 Jack Gilbert Graham was executed by lethal gas in Colorado for the mass murder of 44 people aboard United Airlines Flight 629. On Nov. 1, 1955 Flight 629 took off from Denver, CO bound for Portland, OR. Graham had planted dynamite inside a suitcase which was loaded onto the plane before takeoff. All passengers and the pilot were killed after the bomb exploded minutes after the plane left Stapleton Airport.
The resulting trial became the first in which a state officially sanctioned television cameras to broadcast criminal trials. Jack Gilbert Graham was found guilty and executed in the Colorado State Penitentiary on Jan. 11, 1957.
Jan. 10, 1941 – Land-Lease Program Introduced to Congress
On Jan. 10, 1941 the Land-Lease program was introduced to the United States Congress. The program proposed to provide countries such as Great Britain, France, China, and other allies with war materials in exchange for land to be used for U.S. military occupation. The program also gave the President the power to ignore labor legislation for factories producing new weaponry. The Land-Lease act was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and as a result, the Office of Land-Lease Administration was formed to oversee finances.
Jan. 9, 1861 – Mississippi Secedes From the Union
On Jan. 9, 1861 Mississippi became the second state to secede from the Union. As part of the Confederate States of America, Mississippi farmers depended on hundreds of thousands of slaves for labor. Many plantation owners had become extremely wealthy due to the high quality of the soil in some territories, leading to wealth imbalances among whites which played a major part in the states politics and support for secession.